Stacking solutions are widely recognised as one of the most promising avenues for enhancing machine learning models’ prediction accuracy and overall performance. The term “stacking” refers to the practice of merging the forecasts of numerous models into a single, more accurate prediction. The purpose of this article is to present a survey of the several stacking methods that have recently evolved, each with its own set of advantages and drawbacks. Data scientists and machine learning professionals can improve their models in a variety of ways by familiarising themselves with the wide variety of stacking approaches available.
One common method for combining models is called “traditional stacking,” however other names for it exist as well. To create an ensemble prediction, many base models are trained on the same dataset and their outputs are fed into a meta-model. The underlying models can vary in terms of the algorithms used, the values of the hyperparameters, and the representations of the features. Typically, the meta-model is a linear model, like logistic regression, that aggregates the predictions of the underlying models.
Using Complex Meta-Models for Stacking
Researchers have looked into using complex meta-models that capture relationships among the ensemble predictions to improve the stacking process. These meta-models extend beyond simple linear regression with features like:
a. GBMs, or Gradient Boosting Machines: In recent years, GBMs like XGBoost and LightGBM have become widely used as meta-models in the stacking process. They are effective ensemble approaches that can process a wide variety of data, account for non-linear correlations, and discover the interplay between features on their own.
Stacking solutions have also made good use of neural networks as meta-models, namely those based on deep learning architectures. They are well-suited for dealing with high-dimensional and non-linear problems due to their capacity to learn complicated patterns and record nuanced linkages in data.
Stacking can also make use of random forests, which are ensembles of individual decision trees used as meta-models. c. Random Forests. They are reliable in the face of overfitting and adept at processing numerical and categorical information.
Creating a hierarchical structure from several stacking layers is the goal of hierarchical stacking, also called multi-level stacking. The predictions from one layer’s base models are fed into the meta-model of the following layer. In the end, the meta-model at the highest level provides the ensemble prediction.
Data patterns and linkages are better captured by a hierarchical stacking structure. It allows for the integration of predictions at many levels, making the ensemble more flexible in the face of complexities. When dealing with big and varied datasets, or when encountering difficulties in model interpretability, hierarchical stacking can be extremely helpful.
Improvements in model performance can be achieved through stacking with feature engineering. To improve the predictive power of an ensemble, stacking solutions can employ feature engineering methods. Feature stacking is a popular method in which engineered characteristics are used in addition to the original input features during training. As a result, the meta-model may take in more information by learning not only from the raw data but also from the derived features.
b. Meta-Feature Engineering: This branch of engineering employs the predictions from underlying models to inform the development of supplementary features. To further enhance the input for the meta-model, these meta-features can capture patterns and relationships that were not originally there in the raw data.
c. Feature Selection: Feature selection approaches are useful for stacking solutions because they help determine which aspects are most important for each individual base model. This helps lower the complexity of the problem, make it easier to interpret, and prevent overfitting.
In order to achieve successful stacking, it is essential to have a diverse set of models to draw from. Better ensemble performance can be achieved by combining different models to take advantage of their synergies. Stacking model diversity can be achieved through a variety of methods.
a. Algorithmic Diversity: Using several families of algorithms for the base models increases the likelihood of a wide variety of predictions being made.
b. Diverse Data: Using methods like bootstrap aggregation (bagging) or training base models on distinct subsets of data might add variety to the ensemble forecasts.
The base models’ predictions can vary depending on their hyperparameter settings, which can include things like learning rates, regularisation parameters, and tree depths.
Stacking solutions, as we have shown, are an effective method for integrating several models to boost prediction quality. The wide variety of stacking methods, from basic stacking to hierarchical stacking, from complex meta-models to feature engineering, gives practitioners a lot of room to experiment with different approaches to ensemble model optimisation. The problem at hand, the data’s characteristics, and the available computer resources all play a role in determining which stacking method to use. When practitioners incorporate stacking solutions into their machine learning processes, they are able to fully realise the power of ensemble models and obtain outstanding results in predicting tasks.